पहिलो पटक आयो वाम गठबन्धनलाइ समेटिएको ओली र प्रचण्डको गुनगान चुनाबी गीत “ओली प्रचण्ड देशका नायक”हेर्नुहोस”
Oli began his political career in 1966. He joined the Communist Party of Nepal in February 1970. He became involved in subversive politics in opposition to the party-less Panchayat System in place at the time. For his activities, he was arrested for the first time in 1970. A year later he became the District committee member of the party and soon the Chief of the Jhapa Movement Organizing Committee in 1972. Oli was arrested and imprisoned for 14 consecutive years for murders from 1973 to 1987. The murders were attributed to “Murkatta revolution”, beheading political opponents and landlords. After escaping from jail in 1987, he became a central committee member of UML as an in-charge for Lumbini Zone until 1990. He then went on to hold the post of chief of the foreign department of the CPN (UML) in 1992. Oli also became the Founder President of the National Democratic Youth Federation of Nepal (DNYF).
He was elected as a member of parliament in the House of Representatives from Jhapa district’s electorate no. 6 in 1991. Soon he became the chief of the department of publicity. In the ever-changing political situation of Nepal, Oli served as Minister of Home Affairs in 1994–1995. He was re-elected to the House of Representatives from Jhapa electorate no. 2 in 1999.
Oli was appointed as Deputy Prime Minister as part of the interim government in 2006. He was also assigned to look into the death of fellow politician Madan Bhandari. From April 2006 to 2007, Oli was Minister of Foreign Affairs.
Oli stood as a candidate in the 2008 Constituent Assembly election but failed to win a seat. Five years later, he won the Jhapa–7 seat in the 2013 Constituent Assembly election as a CPN-UML candidate. He was designated as the Chief of the International Department of the CPN-UML Parliamentary Party.
Oli was elected as leader of the CPN-UML Parliamentary Party in the Second Constituent Assembly on 4 February 2014, defeating party chairman Jhala Nath Khanal by a vote of 98 to 75. Oli was subsequently elected as the chairman of CPN-UML in July 2014.